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Can on its territory in such a system, princes, louis vuitton speedylords, or can force large landowners to obtain land revenue, and; feudalism is a title derived from the ancient Chinese emperor in accordance with the level of the territorial feudal clan system or hero as Shiyi exercise of governmental authority.
Modern scholars call "feudal" historical system include:
Feudalism (China): The Western Zhou Dynasty began in feudal 11th century BC, the Qin Dynasty after the establishment of the 3rd century BC, gradually replaced by the centralized system;
Feudalism (Europe): 5-15 century prevailed in medieval, 16th and 17th century with the rise and decline of the nation-state;
Feudalism (Japan): 8-12 century originated in the Heian era precepts made in 12-19 century era Aggressive right into the mainstream system, beyond the second half of the 19th century Meiji Restoration. [1]
Note that the "feudal" is defined as the presence of broad and narrow sense. Narrow "feudal" refers to Western European feudal system similar social system. Marx this concept more broadly defined as the implementation of the landlord class dictatorship of the peasantry social system, has a more general sense, but makes specific use when historians often confused, need attention. According to the basic principles of Marxism-stage theory of the evolution of social forms, from the Chinese Qin to the Ming and Qing facts analysis, China's social history stages of feudalism not be denied. [2]
Most historians believe that China did not have a so-called feudal system in the narrow sense, or that China's feudal system is limited to even the Western Zhou Dynasty Zhou (see enfeoffment). According to Marxist historiography, the history of most countries and regions have experienced a period of feudal society, such as Europe from the 9th century to about the 15th century, are considered feudal society. And China from the beginning of the Warring States period,authentic louis vuitton speedy but also calendar after a long period of feudal society. In addition to emphasizing the feudal ownership of land outside the division, usually have the right, the obvious class system.
Qualitative Society
In feudal society, the formation of the natural economy is land-based, agriculture and handicraft combining family production units, with a self-enclosed, independence, in order to meet their own needs-oriented economic structure. This economic structure of most of the key means of production are vested in the master landlord (or feudal lords) hands, and therefore capable of forming a "landlord (feudal lords) exploitation of the peasants' class relations.
In feudal society, the landlord class rule is the other fundamental class of feudal land ownership. By mastering the land of the landlord class production, the use of land farmers through extract the rent, loan sharking and other means of exploitation of other classes. At the same time in the form of feudal land ownership are not the same, there are lease by lease and pay the rent, the tenant and other ways to employ, but its essence remains an exploitative relationship, and does not change the nature of feudal society as a class society .
Unique feudal
Feudal society, there is often quite obvious class system, such as Western Europe's leader - the King - Lord - Jazz system architecture to form a pyramid type of rule, but the relationship between them is not too perfect, usually no longer lord jazz allegiance to the king, and therefore have a saying, "my vassal vassal is not my vassal." However, long-term basis for this rule structure can be maintained down to is the idea of the concept of feudal society, usually made with "the monarch power" as the skeleton, into some of the thinking of the ruling class service for collection from thinking. These ideas also contain a lot of good moral values, such as China's "Confucianism."
Changes in society
Shake fundamentally feudal rule, is to undermine its relations of production, the peasant uprising, the bourgeois revolution is aimed at changing the feudal land ownership (thus changing the entire feudal system) of the class struggle. One of the most typical is the basic production relations of capitalism - to hire labor.
The first was born in capitalist commodity economy developed in Italy, such as Florence, Venice and other regions.
On behalf of the natural economy of capitalism, based on the exchange of commodities and commodity production as the core of the commodity economy. Since the purpose of the production from a single shift to meet the community to provide products to determine the relations of production will be different from the existing feudal system. Since the development of commodity economy, the original natural economic impact, began to disintegrate, farmers and artisans began to lose production, becoming the proletariat, and then by the factory owners - the oldest bourgeois signed employment agreements with them to form a new production relations, hiring labor.
With the disintegration of the process of capitalist economic legacy of the feudal nature of the economy, the increasingly powerful bourgeoisie has the ability to clear away all contrary to the development of capitalism factors, such as the "divine right talent", "three cardinal guides and the five permanent members" and other ideas, farming men and women weave other production structure, and ultimately overthrow the feudal society, the establishment of the capitalist countries.
Destination community
Usually due to the development of productive forces of feudal society will transition to a capitalist society, according to the bourgeois class of feudal relationships to form a constitutional monarchy (Britain, Tsarist Russia, Japan, etc.), republican (the French Republic,cheap louis vuitton speedy the Federal Republic of Germany, the United States of America, etc. ).
But there are also specific changes relationships, such as China's feudal society formed by a semi-colonial and semi-feudal autocratic society, then crossed the capitalist society into a socialist society.
During the same period there may be composed of various social relations of production.
3 Chinese regime
Feudalism (Feudalism) is a social institution. By overlord or central dynasty to the royal family, royal and feudal territory hero, a political system category.
"Feudal" or "mound founding", that the emperor himself outside the direct jurisdiction of land Ji, feudal princes, and grant them the title, let them build vassal states, to defend the center. (In essence the same as the feudal system, Liu's "Feudal" refers to the feudal system)
Chinese ancient China's Central Plains, the closure of the land called "princes" ("vassal state", "closed country" or "kingdom"), the ruling princes (Kingdom of) the monarch is called "Princes", "Jun "or" monarch ", but also use the" king "of the title.
Feudalism in Chinese history
Most people tend to think that the past is the King Wu of Zhou feudal system, which was created, then the Tang Liu in "Feudal" Wen has made a rebuttal, said:. "Feudal non saint of Italy also, the potential also" Liu Wings seek that: "Since the Tang Dynasty, Yu Zhizhou are feudal times, emperors and princes of divide and rule. "
"Feudal", simple words refers to the king to Juetu feudal princes, leaving the founding of the feudal area. This is a way to ancient times to defeat the ruling clan land and population for the purposes of defeat. Thus, the so-called feudal, tribal wars since there should have been the prototype. But the feudal system originated in the week when the formal, modern scholars have different opinions, but most advocate began in the Western Zhou Dynasty.
Week chamber view of the then princes of the congregation but each according to key position, future generations will suffer Castles for it, is the Xing destroy the country, following the name of a masterpiece, the feudal lords, with colonial methods, packet surnamed Zhou and hero to the respective importance, use around the original tribes to establish national, forces since the beginning up to the next, Zhou became a world overlord, feudal scale formally completed.
Descendants and providers as well as adherents of the legendary sage meritorious soldiers, let them place as "princes", partition management, assisted Zhou Wang, blocked the "princes" in the "closed country" continues packet through this by packet level, subordinate to the higher commitment to pay tribute, military security, obey orders and other obligations.
"Feudalism" that the ancient Chinese "feudal" original meaning, namely "closed" soil and "build" the country; the ancient literature of the "feudal" or "feudal system." "Feudalism" in the Zhou period is the week of the royal family into the territory of the social system of land lords, in the "feudalism", the state land is not entirely Zhou royal family, but by obtaining the manor of princes all, they have each packet All the resources and benefits of land, just pay a tribute to the royal Court to fulfill their obligations, which is equivalent to the relationship between the kingdoms of medieval Europe and the Holy See, that the basis of the modern sense of the Federation, but with Europe's "feudal system "still very different. Zhou Wang is the nature of the Castles (Castles is the leader of the clan society legacy mode, Yu clan for the final Castles). Princes of the land theoretically weeks after his death by the royal family to recover reassigned, but is generally hereditary. Spring and Autumn Period, with the development field system collapse and hegemony of the war, the decline of the Zhou Dynasty royal family, "ritual conquest from the emperor the" situation is "ritual conquest since princes out" instead, Zhou Wang, "Castles in the world" status loss "feudalism" Start destruction. Qin Shi Huang unified China, the abolition of "feudalism," Qin dynasty in the country to implement a single "prefectures and counties."
Han inherited the Qin Dynasty "county system" such administrative division management system, and Qin Xingzheng zoning is different, in the implementation of the "county" system while implementing national system closure, sealing countries, including the Kingdom and Hou, which kind of two kinds of parallel system known as the "gun" system, although the gun parallel Han Dynasty, but still "county" system-based. Early Han Dynasty, Liu face pieced together the six countries princes forces and background after the death of Qin, the first task is: struggling to maintain a stable situation, eradicate surname Princes to children packet way to reconcile surname Princes and gun system bipolar bias, when Liu Bang and Xiang Yu fight, has seven different surname feudal king. After the emperor, and packet nine surname Wang, so later confrontation between the central government and the closure of the country, continuing a long time. Early Han Dynasty restore the feudal system, while the implementation of prefectures and counties, so gun miscellaneous office, relative restraint, for the maintenance of national unity and centralization play a positive role.
Three Chinese history since the beginning of the Qing dynasty until the last one, to varying degrees, the management of state administrative divisions in each period to implement the "feudal system", but not the subject packet; later dynasties political stability, national and Hou Feng actually became the administrative division system one, or form packet;authentic louis vuitton purses even in the presence of warlords regime, in most cases, to receive the canonization of the Central Plains, such as the King of Chu, one of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of ten countries Mayan, despite founding in 907 years, is still in 927 years (Tiancheng years) to accept the Later Tang dynasty Central canonized as "king."
Zhou feudal system
King Wu of the implementation of the first feudal, for three reasons: first, to Anfu Yan China, but be monitored; followed by armed immigration, whereby the expansion forces; there is to win over the people, in order to consolidate the rule of the Zhou Dynasty.
▲ first feudal
Feudal feudal lords actually about to land to the princes to establish their jurisdiction. Earlier this week the first time after the feudal and content, mainly the following number:
· After King Wu Shang, automatically exit Yin, the son of King Zhou Feng Wu Geng to get there, continue to manage providers adherents;
· King Wu Yin in the vicinity, the packet Guanshu his three younger brothers, Tsai Shu and Huo Shu, Wu Geng purpose is to monitor, known as the "three prison";
· King Wu of capital in Gao Jing later, another hero for relatives and feudal lords, most of these vassal states to focus on the south bank of the Yellow River.
Zheng Zhou Gongdong insurgency ▲
Zhou established two years, the King Wu died. His youngest son, Zhou Wang throne by King Wu Ji Dan's brother the Duke of proxy politics, this practice is called "regent." Three prison dissatisfied, they spread rumors that the Duke would be detrimental to the king, and encourage joint Wu Geng up rebellion, known as the "three prison chaos."
Duke personally led troops Crusade against three prison, with a three-year period, and only then mess things settle down flat. Later in his Luo Yi (Henan Luoyang) Construction East are to participate Wu Geng rebellion "Yin stubborn people" moved there, but also be regulated heavily deployed, the Luo Yi as a center of political and military domination of the eastern region. In addition, Duke has developed music, in order to maintain order in the country and society.
▲ second feudal society
Zhougongdan put down the Rebellion of the Three Guards, the implementation of the second feudal, mainly in the following number:
First, Faro. Zhougongdan cutting son Bo Qin Huai, Xu Rong, then sealed in Faro.
Second, Qi. Seal JiangTaiGong son Dinggong Yu Qi.
Third, the guard. Feng Kang Shu in the Guardian, seven nations have Yin China.
Fourth, Song. Song Kai Feng neutrinos.
Five, Jin. Feng Tang Shu Yu Xia Hui.
Six, Cai. Feng Zhong Hu of Cai Yu Cai.
Seven East are. Luo Yi Duke run for East are set Yin stubborn people.
Has three purposes:
· Differentiation Yin to adherents prevent Yin China again up mutiny;
· Consolidate the rule of the Zhou Dynasty, as the royal Ping Fan;
• Expanding the scope of the rule, and strengthen local control.
Earlier this week the second feudal contents include:
· The Yin old ground packet for Song, Wei two countries to facilitate the rule;
Big letters relatives and hero, as the royal Ping Fan;
· Duke deliberately put the first few letters of the feudal country eastward, some farther to the east coast,louis vuitton purses bags thereby expanding the scope of the rule, and surrounded by countries which Yin seal to prevent its regeneration rebellion.
▲ feudal princes role
King Wu and the Duke of total packet more than 70 countries, which accounted for princes surname Ji 53, showing a large feudal twice weekly, the feudal princes are mostly the children of King Zhou's surname, followed by the hero. Under the feudal system, Zhou Wang, also known as "Son of Heaven", has superior authority, the role of feudal lords, is to them as the central Ping Fan.
Additionally, princes of the title, is divided into public, Hou, Peter, son, male, five and so on. Princes must obey the emperor's command, to pay tribute to the emperor, a regular audience with the emperor, and troops in combat with the emperor.
▲ patriarchal system
Zhou also established a patriarchal system, fit and maintain the development of the feudal system. Patriarchal system regulations kings, princes and other positions, only the "Allegiance" to be eligible to inherit, the other son were packet of times a job, that princes, Bureaucrats or disabilities. Closely combine the two systems, to further consolidate the rule of the Zhou Dynasty.
▲ Zhou feudal system collapse
"When the Spring and Autumn, has gradually changed from a feudal and counties." "Weekly thousand eight hundred countries, to the beginning of the Spring and Autumn Period, the remaining hundred and fourteen countries. Spring countries, the annexation of small weak, probably its country for the county. due to destroy the country and special home county, because the county home and Extraordinary officer, then fade to the feudal system of prefectures and counties of the system. "Qinmie six countries, waste feudal, home counties, the establishment of a centralized monarchy system.
Western Han Dynasty

State and county seal parallel ▲
The beginning of the establishment of the Western Han Dynasty, the Han emperor to help him fight the seven hero called surname Wang Xiang Yu (with different surnames royal Princes); later with treason charges or other ways to level these vassal states, changed the royal seal seven children Wang old ground. As elsewhere, the prefectures and counties still use the Qin Dynasty.
This "gun parallel" situation, so that the central threat to the princes of the Kingdom, laying down the political crisis in the Western Han Dynasty.
▲ pacification Wu, Chu Qiguo chaos
During the Han Emperor, ruling Han emperor, the economy recovered and development, improvement of people's livelihood, the country is thriving. But Princes forces malpractice, gradually become overbearing, the Han emperor in order to strengthen the central power, the implementation of the policy cut fan, causing a vassal king of discontent, thus leading to Wu, Chu Qiguo chaos occurred. Having submitted the generals Han emperor sent to quell the rebellion, and cut power to the king's princes, so that they become free members only eat salary is no longer govern the people. Thus, the foundation of centralized rule is more secure.
▲ vassal kingdom forces cuts
Wu, after 楚七国 chaos subsided, the princes of power has been weakened, but they still have a vast territory, is also a great economic power. Han emperor's death, the Emperor inherited his father's cut-fan policies, promulgated the "push grace order" to allow the Kingdom of feudal land lords to their children, so the more points Princes force smaller forces greatly weakened, Since then, the "big country but more than ten city, Xiao Hou but more than ten years," no longer the central threat.

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